17 noviembre 2022
ISEAK Working Paper

The impact of the increase in the minimum wage on inequality and employment

This report analyses, through the use of MCVL microdata, the relationship between the increase in the Minimum Interprofessional Wage (SMI) for 2019 and inequality, both in terms of wages and income, as well as its impact on employment. The results confirm that the groups most affected by this increase are women, young people and immigrants. A reduction in wage inequality and an increase in the income share of the lowest quintiles are observed, which would suggest that the increase in the minimum wage has fulfilled its objective of wage compression. On the other hand, this measure has a limited negative causal impact on employment, nil in the short term but growing slightly and gradually over time, mainly in terms of job losses and, to a lesser extent, an adjustment in the labour intensity of those affected.
30 agosto 2022
Journal of Educational Computing Research, 2022

The negative impact of ICT overuse on student performance: evidence from OECD countries

The increasing presence of technologies at school has triggered a vivid debate on the way ICT influences students’ learning process. Using PISA 2018 data for 15-year-old students and hierarchical linear models, we find an inverted U-shaped relationship between ICT use at school and students’ performance in mathematics in 22 OECD countries. In all cases, the excessive use of technology is associated with a lower academic performance, although this penalty differs across countries, which points to the importance of addressing country-specific analyses. The differentiated profile of those very intensive users, who suffer from above-average bullying exposure, draws into question whether the effect can be deemed as causal. Based on Inverse Probability Weighting techniques, the findings indicate that the very intensive use of ICT at school causes an underperformance of students equivalent to around half an academic course in Estonia, Finland and Spain. The results highlight the need to ensure that the integration of ICT at schools is based on well-founded pedagogical methodologies; frequently evaluated; and supported by the continuous update of teachers’ digital skills.
29 marzo 2022
SERIES, 2022

Internship contracts in Spain: a stepping stone or a hurdle towards job stability?

Internship contracts (ICs) were designed as a stepping stone for educated young work- ers to develop their professional skills upon graduation. Such contracts incentivise employment creation, as firms benefit from lower wages and tax reductions, but at the same time, firms are expected to develop training programmes to improve the profes- sional skills of youth. This paper assesses whether such subsidies help improve the labour market trajectories of the beneficiaries of ICs. To do so, we focus on entrants into the labour market and compare those who start through an IC with a matched control group whose first employment episode is through a nonsubsidised temporary contract. We look at short, medium and long-term effects on job stability and wages. We find that in the short run, labour market performance, in terms of wages and job stability, is poorer for the beneficiaries of the IC, unless they leave the firm right after the IC experience. In the medium and long run, however, the negative impact on wages is mitigated, and its impact on job stability is positive. A possible interpretation is that firms, in the short run, use ICs to lower hiring costs, but beneficiaries send a positive signal to the market that is rewarded in the medium and long terms.
28 julio 2021
Studies in Educational Evaluation, 2021

The effect of the Free High School Tuition law on upper-secondary school choice in Japan

El objetivo de este estudio es analizar los factores determinantes de las decisiones de los padres y los estudiantes a la hora de elegir los centros de enseñanza secundaria superior en Japón y cómo estos factores se vieron afectados por la aplicación de la nueva ley de "matrícula gratuita en la escuela secundaria" introducida en 2010. Los centros de enseñanza secundaria superior, tanto públicos como privados, pueden ser profesionales o académicos. Esta elección de escuela se ha analizado utilizando las características de las familias y las escuelas incluidas en los cuestionarios PISA 2009 y 2012 mediante un modelo logit multinomial. Las características familiares más influyentes en la elección de la escuela secundaria superior en Japón están relacionadas con el presupuesto familiar, la educación de los padres, la clase social y el estatus. Además, los resultados muestran que la aplicación de la nueva ley afectó a la elección escolar de las familias. Sin embargo, la ley no tuvo el mismo efecto igualador en las familias con más de un hijo y en las de bajo presupuesto, especialmente en las zonas con una oferta limitada de colegios privados.
7 julio 2021
ISEAK Working Paper

Alleviating Poverty in Spain: Evidences from the Minimum Income Scheme

Este trabajo estudia el papel de Ingreso Mínimo Vital (IMV) aprobado en mayo de 2020 en España como sistema de último recurso para reducir la pobreza extrema. Se concluye que el IMV alivia en gran parte la pobreza extrema y reduce su intensidad, pero hay margen de mejora. Este trabajo plantea, en primer lugar, una redefinición de las cantidades otorgadas siguiendo el estándar internacional de pobreza con el objetivo de maximizar su cobertura e impacto. En segundo lugar, presenta ajustes en el diseño del SMI para mejorar su eficacia en la reducción de la pobreza y su eficiencia en el gasto de los fondos públicos.
15 febrero 2021
ISEAK Working Paper

Comparing Teacher and External Assessments: Are Boys, Immigrants and Poorer Students Undergraded?

En este artículo, estudiamos la presencia de diferencias sistemáticas entre los resultados obtenidos entre las evaluaciones de los profesores y las pruebas estandarizadas externas para obtener una medida del sesgo en la evaluación de los profesores (teacher bias). Para ello, utilizamos datos administrativos que cubren los resultados académicos de dos cohortes de alumnos en Euskadi. Los resultados revelan que existen sesgos de evaluación que desfavorecen a los chicos, los alumnos de origen inmigrante y los estudiantes más pobres. El patrón de resultados indica que la presencia de estereotipos es un mecanismo consistente a través del cual nuestros resultados pueden interpretarse.