30 agosto 2022
Journal of Educational Computing Research, 2022

The negative impact of ICT overuse on student performance: evidence from OECD countries

The increasing presence of technologies at school has triggered a vivid debate on the way ICT influences students’ learning process. Using PISA 2018 data for 15-year-old students and hierarchical linear models, we find an inverted U-shaped relationship between ICT use at school and students’ performance in mathematics in 22 OECD countries. In all cases, the excessive use of technology is associated with a lower academic performance, although this penalty differs across countries, which points to the importance of addressing country-specific analyses. The differentiated profile of those very intensive users, who suffer from above-average bullying exposure, draws into question whether the effect can be deemed as causal. Based on Inverse Probability Weighting techniques, the findings indicate that the very intensive use of ICT at school causes an underperformance of students equivalent to around half an academic course in Estonia, Finland and Spain. The results highlight the need to ensure that the integration of ICT at schools is based on well-founded pedagogical methodologies; frequently evaluated; and supported by the continuous update of teachers’ digital skills.
23 marzo 2021
ISEAK Working Paper

The long-lasting scar of bad jobs in the Spanish labour market

Most young Spaniards start their working lives with low wages and highly unstable jobs. Many of them progressively improve their working conditions and move towards better jobs. Yet a relevant fraction get trapped into those low-quality jobs. We refer to this phenomenon as the scar of bad jobs. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the extent and nature of the scar, which helps learn about the hysteresis of bad jobs in Spain. To do so, we use longitudinal administrative records and compute an index to measure the quality of jobs. This is constructed by combining data on labour earnings, number of hours worked and employment rotation. By observing individuals not only at the start of their career, but also five and ten years later, we find that a bad job at the beginning is an important predictor of a bad job five years after, particularly if a bad job stems from working few hours. Additionally, those who escape from bad jobs in the first five years are unlikely to be trapped into them in the long run. Interestingly, the depth of the scar varies along the economic cycle. In particular, the Great Recession severely impacted the future careers of entrants, compared to the pre-crisis workers. Lastly, we identify that women, younger entrants and hospitality workers are more prone to hold their bad jobs in the medium and long term, and hence to be relegated to the lower tail of the income distribution.