17 noviembre 2022
ISEAK Working Paper

The impact of the increase in the minimum wage on inequality and employment

This report analyses, through the use of MCVL microdata, the relationship between the increase in the Minimum Interprofessional Wage (SMI) for 2019 and inequality, both in terms of wages and income, as well as its impact on employment. The results confirm that the groups most affected by this increase are women, young people and immigrants. A reduction in wage inequality and an increase in the income share of the lowest quintiles are observed, which would suggest that the increase in the minimum wage has fulfilled its objective of wage compression. On the other hand, this measure has a limited negative causal impact on employment, nil in the short term but growing slightly and gradually over time, mainly in terms of job losses and, to a lesser extent, an adjustment in the labour intensity of those affected.
16 septiembre 2021
ISEAK Working Paper

The need for requalification in the Spanish labour market: Mapping employment with workplace skills

Este estudio aborda la relación empírica entre las tareas laborales y los cambios en la cuota de empleo en España para el periodo 1997-2019. Para ello, utilizamos los novedosos datos representativos europeos sobre competencias/tareas ESCO. En general, encontramos una necesidad de recualificación en la mano de obra española. Mostramos que los cambios en los porcentajes de empleo se distribuyen de forma heterogénea según el contenido de las tareas: hay un descenso general en la demanda de habilidades rutinarias-manuales, mientras que han surgido habilidades tecnológicas y de interacción social. A continuación, contrastamos empíricamente los resultados de la literatura reciente que ha utilizado los datos de la O*NET de Estados Unidos. Obtenemos resultados consistentes: Las ocupaciones rutinarias-manuales intensivas están disminuyendo su cuota de empleo en relación con las ocupaciones cognitivas no rutinarias. Además, comprobamos que los distintos grupos se han adaptado de forma diferente a estos cambios. Los trabajadores de más edad se ven atrapados en ocupaciones en declive por razones no relacionadas con las tareas realizadas, mientras que los hombres se ven atrapados en ocupaciones en declive porque tienen habilidades de demanda en declive. Por último, mediante un análisis caso por caso, identificamos a los trabajadores que pueden necesitar una reubicación laboral. Para ellos obtenemos el camino óptimo hacia las ocupaciones emergentes, de modo que la brecha en términos de tareas se minimiza. Continuando, encontramos para los trabajadores desplazados la recalificación específica necesaria para afrontar esta reubicación laboral.
7 julio 2021
ISEAK Working Paper

Alleviating Poverty in Spain: Evidences from the Minimum Income Scheme

Este trabajo estudia el papel de Ingreso Mínimo Vital (IMV) aprobado en mayo de 2020 en España como sistema de último recurso para reducir la pobreza extrema. Se concluye que el IMV alivia en gran parte la pobreza extrema y reduce su intensidad, pero hay margen de mejora. Este trabajo plantea, en primer lugar, una redefinición de las cantidades otorgadas siguiendo el estándar internacional de pobreza con el objetivo de maximizar su cobertura e impacto. En segundo lugar, presenta ajustes en el diseño del SMI para mejorar su eficacia en la reducción de la pobreza y su eficiencia en el gasto de los fondos públicos.
23 marzo 2021
ISEAK Working Paper

The long-lasting scar of bad jobs in the Spanish labour market

Most young Spaniards start their working lives with low wages and highly unstable jobs. Many of them progressively improve their working conditions and move towards better jobs. Yet a relevant fraction get trapped into those low-quality jobs. We refer to this phenomenon as the scar of bad jobs. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the extent and nature of the scar, which helps learn about the hysteresis of bad jobs in Spain. To do so, we use longitudinal administrative records and compute an index to measure the quality of jobs. This is constructed by combining data on labour earnings, number of hours worked and employment rotation. By observing individuals not only at the start of their career, but also five and ten years later, we find that a bad job at the beginning is an important predictor of a bad job five years after, particularly if a bad job stems from working few hours. Additionally, those who escape from bad jobs in the first five years are unlikely to be trapped into them in the long run. Interestingly, the depth of the scar varies along the economic cycle. In particular, the Great Recession severely impacted the future careers of entrants, compared to the pre-crisis workers. Lastly, we identify that women, younger entrants and hospitality workers are more prone to hold their bad jobs in the medium and long term, and hence to be relegated to the lower tail of the income distribution.
24 febrero 2021
ISEAK Working Paper

Analyzing the Beginning of the Career Path of Young Professionals from a Gender Perspective

Young graduates are confronted with rough conditions when they want to enter the labor market. They face higher unemployment rates and are more often engaged in precarious employment, like part-time and/ or temporary positions. Young women, especially, suffer from relatively more severe labor market outcomes and perform worse than their male peers. We aim to analyze how gender and field specialization differentials among young professionals lead to different labor market outcomes in the following dimensions: (i) probability of being employed, (ii) for employed graduates, the probability of being self-employed, (iii) for salaried workers, the probability of being a full-time worker and (iv) for salaried workers, the wage determinants and the association of wages and gender and field of study. We use a data set that provides relevant information about 6,981 students that graduated in 2015 from the University of the Basque Country and their labor market situation in 2018. We find no evidence for gender gaps in both the probability of being employed and the probability of being self-employed. However, women have fewer chances to find full-time employment and earn significantly less than men. The different fields of specialization have a substantial predictive power to explain these results. But, even after controlling for several further job-characteristics and firm-specific attributes, gender gaps that are yet unexplained still prevail.
15 febrero 2021
ISEAK Working Paper

Comparing Teacher and External Assessments: Are Boys, Immigrants and Poorer Students Undergraded?

En este artículo, estudiamos la presencia de diferencias sistemáticas entre los resultados obtenidos entre las evaluaciones de los profesores y las pruebas estandarizadas externas para obtener una medida del sesgo en la evaluación de los profesores (teacher bias). Para ello, utilizamos datos administrativos que cubren los resultados académicos de dos cohortes de alumnos en Euskadi. Los resultados revelan que existen sesgos de evaluación que desfavorecen a los chicos, los alumnos de origen inmigrante y los estudiantes más pobres. El patrón de resultados indica que la presencia de estereotipos es un mecanismo consistente a través del cual nuestros resultados pueden interpretarse.